[N 1] Union troops under the command of Gen. Henry W. Slocum occupied Atlanta on September 2. The campaign began with Sherman's troops leaving the captured city of Atlanta on November 15 and ended with the capture of the port of Savannah on December 21. MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Atlanta, Ga., September 15, 1864.. Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, Chief of Staff, Washington, D.C. GENERAL: I have heretofore from day to day by telegraph kept the War Department and General-in-Chief advised of the progress of events, but now it becomes necessary to review the whole campaign which has resulted in the capture and occupation of the city … Sherman's forces settled into a siege outside of Atlanta, shelling the city daily. But things didn't work out very well. Special care is given to locating and identifying local families living along this path of war in 1864, and through their letters, diaries, or books, shares their experiences of war. Rather than attack, Sherman moved away from the Western and Atlantic Railroad, which was his main line of supply, and attempted a broad flanking movement. By the time Sherman entered Atlanta, each side had lost more than 30,000 men as casualties. American Battlefield Trust’s map of the Civil War's Atlanta Campaign. The Union felt that if they destroyed Atlanta, it would speed up the process of ending the Civil War. Thread starter Luke Freet; Start date Oct 31, 2020; Luke Freet First Sergeant. Demonstration against Rocky Face Ridge, with combats at Buzzard Roost or Mill Creek Gap, and Dug Gap. [26][27] Sherman's victory was qualified because it did not fulfill the original mission of the campaign—destroy the Army of Tennessee—and Sherman has been criticized for allowing his opponent to escape. Sherman had already decided on his target. This poster is one out of 10 available. Sherman's Atlanta Campaign and March to the Sea poster serves as a colorful visual reminder of the path that Sherman took from Chattanooga, TN to Atlanta, GA and the path Sherman took from Atlanta, GA to Savannah, GA in May of 1864. On August 31, Hardee attacked two Union corps west of Jonesborough but was easily repulsed. After Ulysses S. Grant was promoted to general-in-chief of all Union armies, he left his favorite subordinate from his time in command of the Western Theater, William T. Sherman, in charge of the Western armies. Warned of Hood's intentions, Union generals John Schofield and Joseph Hooker entrenched. Hooker then was the XX Corps commander reporting to General Thomas in the Army of the Cumberland. Sherman had to face Joseph E. Johnston's 60,000 Confederate troops. Feb 24, 2016 - 7 May - 2 Sep 1864 Sherman's invasion of Georgia. The two columns engaged the enemy at Buzzard Roost (Mill Creek Gap) and at Dug Gap. Nine successive defensive positions were taken up by Johnston. Hardee's Order of Battle during Sherman's March. Sherman was given the task of pursuing Confederate General Joseph Johnston's Army of Tennessee while simultaneously damaging Confederate war resources. Johnston fell back to Resaca, where on May 14 and 15, the two armies fought the first battle of the campaign. [21], While Wheeler was absent raiding Union supply lines from North Georgia to East Tennessee, Sherman sent cavalry Brig. He was replaced by John Bell Hood. Sherman continued looking for a way around Johnston's line, and on June 1, his cavalry occupied Allatoona Pass, which had a railroad and would allow his men and supplies to reach him by train. Such broad generalizations may assuage wounded Southern pride, but they also rewrite history. He was in command of the Department of Kentucky later that year, but, after a nervous breakdown, his public reputation was shattered. After the Chattanooga Campaign Bragg retreated 25 miles south to Dalton, Ga., and entrenched. Ulysses Grant gave him 112,000 troops to take down to the south. [12], After the Union defeat at New Hope Church, Sherman ordered Howard to attack Johnston's seemingly exposed right flank. B. Sherman’s March Through The South The Confederates repulsed the attack, causing high casualties. Sociology 110: Cultural Studies & Diversity in the U.S. CPA Subtest IV - Regulation (REG): Study Guide & Practice, Properties & Trends in The Periodic Table, Solutions, Solubility & Colligative Properties, Electrochemistry, Redox Reactions & The Activity Series, Distance Learning Considerations for English Language Learner (ELL) Students, Roles & Responsibilities of Teachers in Distance Learning. Yet, with Atlanta's fall, a boost of enthusiasm flowed into the North. They remained there until late August. But in Georgia, he faced the much more aggressive Sherman. On September 2, 1864, Federal forces entered Atlanta, achieving one of the greatest victories of the entire Civil War. Did you know… We have over 220 college Visit the High School US History: Homework Help Resource page to learn more. And yet, the worst death and destruction were yet to come. Although Hood had outmaneuvered Sherman for the time being, McPherson was concerned about his left flank and sent his reserves—Dodge's XVI Corps—to that location. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick to raid Confederate supply lines. That summer, it appeared as though Abraham Lincoln might lose his reelection bid. These resulted in the Battle of Peachtree Creek, the Battle of Atlanta (the bloodiest fight of the entire campaign), and the Battle of Ezra Church. In the spring of 1864, while Grant was in The Wilderness, William T. Sherman and 90,000 Union soldiers moved southward from Chattanooga toward Atlanta.A smaller Confederate force, about 60,000 men, was under the command of Joseph E. Johnston.Their role was to slow the Union advance and to try to disrupt the lines of supply as Sherman went farther into Southern territory. Logan's XV Corps then led a counterattack that restored the Union line. On August 7, the Union troops moved toward the Confederate main line and entrenched. The campaign continued in this way—Sherman outflanking Johnston, who withdrew to previously fortified positions—until June 27, when Sherman tried a direct attack at Kennesaw Mt., c.25 mi (40 km) NW of Atlanta, and was repulsed. Sherman knew that if he could take Atlanta, he would deprive the South of much-needed resources and open up a gateway for the Union to march across Georgia and meet up with Union forces in the East. to the Sea, the most destructive campaign against a civilian population during the Civil War (1861-65), began in Atlanta on November 15, 1864, and concluded in Savannah on December 21, 1864. Over the next two weeks, Hood launched several fierce assaults against Sherman's forces. The Atlanta Campaign of 1864 saw Union General William T. Sherman and his army fight against Confederate General Joseph Johnston's Army of Tennessee. (Meeting details on the left side of this page.) Schofield's force began its movement to exploit this situation on the morning of August 5, which was initially successful. By the age of 16, Sherman had entered West Point, where he graduated in 1840. Map 6:Atlanta Campaign: Siege of Atlanta. At that time, Grant's campaign against Lee in Virginia had bogged down into a siege outside of Petersburg. [13], When Sherman first found Johnston entrenched in the Marietta area on June 9, he began extending his lines beyond the Confederate lines, causing some Confederate withdrawal to new positions. Confederate President Jefferson Davis replaced Johnston with Hood on July 18, believing the latter's more aggressive tactics would be a match for Sherman. After beating back a Confederate attack at Jonesboro, Sherman successfully cut Atlanta off from all rail lines, leaving Hood no choice but to abandon the city. [20], Wheeler and his cavalry raided into North Georgia to destroy railroad tracks and supplies. Johnston's Army of Tennessee was roughly 60,000 men strong. [6], Opposing Sherman, the Army of Tennessee was commanded first by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, who was relieved of his command in mid-campaign and replaced by Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood. For about two weeks in late June, Johnston was positioned on and near Kennesaw Mountain, just west of Marietta. General Sherman announced to his troops that "The army having accomplished its undertaking in the complete reduction and occupation of Atlanta will occupy the place and the country near it until a new campaign is planned in concert with the other grand armies of the United States."[25]. He withdrew his main army at night from Atlanta's outer line to the inner line, enticing Sherman to follow. The Federals were repulsed with heavy losses and failed in an attempt to break the railroad. He graduated from West Point in 1829 (the same year as Robert E. Lee) and had a long and distinguished career of service before the Civil War. Sherman mistakenly surmised that Johnston had a token force and ordered Hooker's XX Corps to attack. At first, they made some headway overrunning Confederate pickets south of the Burnt Hickory Road, but attacking an enemy that was dug in was futile. Stoneman's raid to Macon, with combats at Macon and Clinton (July 30), Hillsborough (July 30–31), Mulberry Creek and Jug Tavern (August 8). imaginable degree, area of Whenever Sherman flanked the defensive lines (almost exclusively around Johnston's left flank), Johnston would retreat to another prepared position. Battles had been fought across the country, destroying homes and families. 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All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Johnston followed, and a series of bloody battles were fought near Dallas. On May 6, 1864, William Tecumseh’s Army pulled out of Ringgold, Georgia, and headed for its major objective – Atlanta, Georgia. Atlanta was also the location of important factories, foundries, munitions plants, and supply depots. [10], After Johnston retreated to Allatoona Pass from May 19 to 20, Sherman decided that attacking Johnston there would be too costly, so he determined to move around Johnston's left flank and steal a march toward Dallas. Next, he headed for Lovejoy's Station on the Macon & Western Railroad. Standard histories of Major General William T. Shermans celebrated March to the Sea invariably portray the Confederacys response as inconsequential. Special care is given to locating and identifying local families living along this path of war in 1864, and through their letters, diaries, or books, shares their experiences of war. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Hood, however, miscalculated the time necessary to make the march, and Hardee was unable to attack until afternoon. Both armies took advantage of the railroads as supply lines, with Johnston shortening his supply lines as he drew closer to Atlanta, and Sherman lengthening his own. Johnston had entrenched his army on the long, high mountain of Rocky Face Ridge and eastward across Crow Valley. It was at the Battle of Shiloh in which, under the command of Grant, Sherman began his rise to glory. It would be fitting considering his young son's military future. But this represented a much higher Confederate proportional loss. On June 27, 1864, he sent almost 20,000 men forward in an attack against several places in Johnston's line. Atlanta was a crucial rail hub, and its loss was a blow to Confederate logistics and morale. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Johnston had originally expected to find a valley at Adairsville of suitable width to deploy his men and anchor his line with the flanks on hills, but the valley was too wide, so Johnston disengaged and withdrew. The loss of Atlanta would provide no hope for the South's future. Official Records (War of the Rebellion)– SERIES I–VOLUME XXXVIII/5 [S# 76] UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN THE ATLANTA CAMPAIGN, FROM JULY 1, 1864, TO SEPTEMBER 8, 1864.–#5. The Atlanta Campaign had begun with a little skirmish at Tunnel Hill in May of 1864. The resulting fire and explosions were heard for miles. The next day, a Union corps broke through Hardee's line, and his troops retreated to Lovejoy's Station. Log in here for access. It started with Sherman’s army leaving the decimated city of Atlanta on November 16, 1864 and Sherman was sure that Johnston had stretched his line on Kennesaw Mountain too thin and decided on a frontal attack with some diversions on the flanks. He served with distinction on the staff of General Winfield Scott during the war with Mexico. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. The campaign continued in this way—Sherman outflanking Johnston, who withdrew to previously fortified positions—until June 27, when Sherman tried a direct attack at Kennesaw Mt., c.25 mi (40 km) NW of Atlanta, and was repulsed. Hello, I was reading about about the Atlanta campaign and a question arose. I know that across the US there are many abandoned rail lines which in some cases have been vacant for well over a hundred years. While he, George G. Meade, Benjamin Butler, Franz Sigel, George Crook, and William W. Averell advanced in Virginia against Robert E. Lee, and Nathaniel Banks attempted to capture Mobile, Alabama, Sherman was assigned the mission of defeating Johnston's army, capturing Atlanta, and striking through Georgia and the Confederate heartland. McDonough, James Lee, and James Pickett Jones. Maj. Gen. Frank P. Blair, Jr., assumes command of the Seventeenth Army Corps. Feb 24, 2016 - 7 May - 2 Sep 1864 Sherman's invasion of Georgia. American Battlefield Trust’s map of the Civil War's Atlanta Campaign. Skirmish at Etowah River, near Cartersville. Fighting ensued at two different points, but the Confederates were repulsed, suffering high casualties. Howard, however, failed to cut the railroad. I know that across the US there are many abandoned rail lines which in some cases have been vacant for well over a hundred years. This masterly campaign comprised a series of cat-and-mouse moves by the rival commanders. He did not serve in the Mexican War but instead was in California at the time. Atlanta Campaign. 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